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Resting estemmenosuchus

Estemmenosuchus (meaning "crowned crocodile" in Greek) is a genus of large, early omnivorous therapsid. It lived during the middle part of the Middle Permian around 267 million years ago. The two species, E. uralensis and E. mirabilis, are characterised by distinctive horn-like structures, which were probably used for intra-specific display. Both species of Estemmenosuchus are from the Perm (or Cis-Urals) region of Russia. Two other estemmenosuchids, Anoplosuchus and Zopherosuchus, are now considered females of the species E. uralensis. There were many complete and incomplete skeletons found together.

Estemmenosuchus had a sprawling posture and could reach a body length of more than 3 m (10 ft). Its skull was long and massive, up to 65 cm (26 in) in length, and possessed several sets of large horns, somewhat similar to the antlers of a moose, growing upward and outward from the sides and top of the head. The animal had a sprawling posture as indicated by analysing its shoulder joints.

The skull superficially resembles that of Styracocephalus, but the "horns" are formed from different bones; in Estemmenosuchus the horns are located on the frontals and protrude upward, whereas in Styracocephalus the horns are formed by the tabular and extend after.